“We live in constant fear of whether we will live or die. I want the rockets to stop. I want to go back to my home and live peacefully.”–Manal*, a mother of two from Hama.

The war in Syria which began in 2011, has resulted in extreme violence–much of it directly targeting civilians. Syrian civilians are caught from all sides—the Assad regime, government militias, Russian airstrikes, ISIS, armed opposition groups, and anti-ISIS coalition air strikes. Civilian harm attributed to the regime continues to be the primary cause of death, injury and displacement, followed by that caused by ISIS. But operations of the armed opposition groups and Russian and anti-ISIS coalition airstrikes have also resulted in civilian harm.

Since 2012, CIVIC has talked with civilians living in Syria, as well as with refugees in Turkey, Jordan, and Lebanon about their experiences, harm suffered, self-protection strategies to keep their families safe, and what assistance they need from the international community. CIVIC has interviewed Syrians of varied backgrounds, including leaders of the political and armed opposition, army defectors, UN staff, local and international NGO staff, government and military officials, lawmakers, diplomats, doctors and nurses, journalists, civil society activists, and religious leaders. Many of them raised concerns about the dangers posed by simply going about their daily lives. We have also spoken extensively with the armed opposition about civilian protection and identified additional trainings that are needed.

Since US-led operations against ISIS began in 2014, we have engaged with the US government to ensure that policies are in place to minimize civilian harm and to track, improve on the ground investigations, and make amends to civilians harmed by operations in Syria.

CIVIC’s published materials include recommendations to nations who are offering technical and material assistance to the Syrian opposition, the issue brief Civilian Protection in Syria, which analyzes the civilian protection mindset of the armed opposition, and Civilian Harm & Assistance, which describes what Syrians told us about the harm they suffered and types of assistance they need. CIVIC also convened an expert roundtable to consider the impact of foreign military involvement in Syria on civilians. In 2016, we published Waiting for No One: Civilian Survival Strategies in Syria on how the international community could support ongoing self-protection measures adopted by Syrians to protect themselves from air strikes, ground attacks, and unexploded ordnance. In 2017, with talks of safe zones for Syria, we have identified key concerns in “Safe Zones for Syria: A List of Questions for Policymakers to Answer.” As US operations began in Raqqa against Syria, we applied the key lessons from the fight in Mosul, Iraq to Raqqa as well as raised concerns from what we heard about displacement camps, lack of safe exit routes, threats from IEDs and UXO in Recommendations to Anti-ISIS Coalition on Operations in Syria.

*name changed

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