The use of explosive weapons in populated areas has been identified as a key issue on the protection of civilians agenda by states and organizations over recent years. Operational policies and procedures provide guidance for armed forces including over the choice of weapons and how weapons can be used. Such policies and procedures to assess, reduce, and mitigate civilian harm are an important mechanism for ensuring implementation of international humanitarian law (IHL). It is these military policies and procedures, applied in the context of weapon choices, that are the central focus of this report.

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